居住组团:设计联系情感

Socially-Organized Housing: Design That Establishes Emotional Ownership

该文章由Nikos A. Salingaros,David Brain,AndrésM. Duany,Michael W. Mehaffy和Ernesto Philibert-Petit撰写,提供了一套基于现实依据的最优廉租房实践方法,且普遍适用。文章在拉丁美洲的背景下分析了不同的案例。适应性解决方案致力于实现长期可持续发展,并帮助居民了解其建筑环境。

随后,文章提出了对复杂性科学的新见解,比如对于Christopher Alexander关于如何成功地发展城市形态一文的思考。文章通过应用“模式语言”和“生成代码”的概念工具,表达了对其他人先前提供的解决方案的支持,虽然这些解决方案从未以可行的形式提出。

世界各国政府之前所青睐的标准廉租房类型是失败的,因为它是不人性化的,是不可持续的。而文中提出的新方法则提供了一种新的替代方案。

这一系列文章概述了廉租房新的解决方案。文章是一位巴西作者NAS所编写的综合报告,适用于整个拉丁美洲。其中一位作者AMD正在牙买加和加勒比地区的其他地区设计廉租房。其中两位作者AMD和MWM直接参与了美国南部卡特里娜飓风灾难后的重建工作,该地区面临着与廉租房类似但不完全相同的处境。另一位作者EPP正在研究城市结构的行人连通性,并参与了墨西哥政府援助的住房解决规划。而作者DB长期研究城市形态对社会福祉和社区可持续性的影响,这也是文中讨论的一个关键因素。

Developed by Nikos A. Salingaros, David Brain, Andrés M. Duany, Michael W. Mehaffy, and Ernesto Philibert-Petit, this series of articles offers here a set of evidence-based optimal practices for social housing, applicable in general situations. Varying examples are discussed in a Latin American context. Adaptive solutions work towards long-term sustainability and help to attach residents to their built environment.

They propose, then, new insights in complexity science, and in particular the work of Christopher Alexander on how to successfully evolve urban form. By applying the conceptual tools of “Pattern Languages” and “Generative Codes”, these principles support previous solutions derived by others, which were never taken forward in a viable form.

New methodologies presented here offer a promising alternative to the failures of the standard social housing typologies favored by governments around the world, which have proven to be dehumanizing and ultimately unsustainable.

This series of articles outlines promising new solutions for the future of social housing. It has been prepared as a comprehensive report by one of the authors (NAS) for Brazil, and is generally applicable to all of Latin America. One of us (AMD) is designing social housing in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Two of the authors (AMD & MWM) are directly involved with the reconstruction after the hurricane Katrina devastation in the Southern United States, which faces similar, though not identical, realities. Another author (EPP) has researched the pedestrian connectivity of the urban fabric, and is involved in providing government-assisted housing solutions on a massive scale in Mexico. The remaining author (DB) has long studied the influence of urban form on social wellbeing and community sustainability, a crucial factor in our discussion.

Image ? Ana Cecilia Garza Villarreal

如果一个项目得到居民的维护和喜爱,那么该项目就是成功的

全世界的城市化进程导致廉租房面临着挑战,我们希望在此提出一种全面的方法,从根本上改善其效果。项目是否成功,取决于居民的身心健康。我们认为,如果一个项目得到居民的维护和喜爱,并且城市结构以健康和互动的方式建立,那么项目就会成功。相对的,我们认为被居民憎恨的项目是不成功的(因此是不可持续的),导致项目失败的原因可能是在初始建设和维护中浪费了资源,导致社会退化,使居民与社会隔离,从而使项目在短时间内就衰弱下去。

A project is successful if it is maintained and loved by its residents

The challenge of social housing is a major component of world urban growth, and we wish to present here a comprehensive methodology for radically improving its performance. Success will be measured in human terms: i.e., the physical and emotional wellbeing of the resident. We consider a project to be successful if it is maintained and loved by its residents, and also if the urban fabric joins in a healthy and interactive way to the rest of the city. On the other hand, we consider as unsuccessful (and hence unsustainable) a project that is hated by its residents for a number of different reasons, wastes resources in initial construction and upkeep, contributes to social degradation, isolates its residents from society, or decays physically in a short period of time.

Image Cortesía de Natura Futura Arquitectura